April 1883


header ad


FEATURED TODAY: A new ad which ran entirely across the top of the third page.

Sometimes history is a bit fragmentary, literally - the front page of the issue covered in today’s post is shown to the right.

In our post about the issue of March 30, 1883 - intervening issues are missing from the record - we noted that the town of Hermosa had been plated, that lots were being sold quickly, and that the Dalglish store in Hermosa would be able to provide goods within a week.  See their ad, below, from the front page of this issue.

On the Front Page of this issue:

“Dick Liddel, of the Missouri train robbers, convicted of crime has been released on his own recognizance to testify at the trial of Frank James.”

“According to a request by the Hiwaiian government the United States mint at San Francisco will henceforth coin silver money for the people of Hiwaii.  The denominations are one dollar, half dollar, quarter dollar, and eight dollar.”

On the Second Page of this issue:

The only recoverable info was that there were ads and public notices on page 2.

On the Third Page of this issue:

meteorChloride marriage_barnes reference

Fairview: “Jim Mooreland has a contract for hauling ore from the Black Knife to the smelter and has moved to Fairview with his teams.”

Fairview: “Fairview with two widows and two young ladies, has opportunities for amusements in the way of marriages that make the other towns envious.  If the young men in Fairview have any style about them they will be taking steps to improve their condition, soon.”

Fairview: “Some time ago M. Levy purchased the corner brick store of the Cloudman brothers.  Last week he put an iron roof on it, and just as soon as Major Day gets into his own building, thus vacating his, Levy will fit up his new purchase for the stock of goods and move into it without delay.  It is a good built building, nicely situated and will make Levy a dandy store room.”

Hermosa: “Mrs. Miller’s house is on the ground and will soon be erected.  Then Hermosa will have a hotel for the accommodation of visitors.”

In our posting about the March 30 issue we noted that this newspaper was reporting that the old Palomas cabin would be torn down because it was in the middle of main street of the new town of Hermosa.  In this issue it is reported that: “Capt. C. C. Harris has purchased the old Palomas cabin and put it up on his lot in good shape.  It makes him a very nice building, solid and commodious.”

Hermosa: “The Antelope has about one hundred and ten feet of work on it which shows up in many places rich seams of ore ranging from a few inches to four feet in width.  The richest ore is a soft carbonate which runs from five to seven hundred dollars in silver.”

Grafton: “The first telephone in the range is being used in the Royal Arch mine.”

Chloride: “Chloride has had a monopoly thus far on the weddings of the range.  There are but two young ladies left here however, so there will soon be a cessation of bridal balls unless an unlooked for immigration takes place.”

Chloride: “Messrs. McAulay and Fields have  purchased the three-fourths interest in the Adirondack mine owned by J. C. Shaw and it is their intention to begin the work of adding fifty feet to the depth of the shaft, which will make it nearly one hundred feet deep.”

Chloride: “STRAYED OR STOLEN: A stud Burro four years old, medium height, dark back, white belly, and part white nose, both ears sitt behind.  Reward for information.  Friends of the subscriber in other camps will oblige by looking about them. - Dr. Rekkie”

Chloride/Hermosa: “J. J. Dalglish on Wednesday met with an accident which has proved exceedingly painful thus far and although he is apparently better at last reports, it is not known what the result will be.  He had purchased a wild horse, saddled him and got upon his back.  As soon as the rider was seated the animal made a few terrific bucks and lunges and succeeded in unseating “the man on horse back” who fell over the horse’s head upon the ground.  He struck upon his side and some internal injury was done although it is not possible to tell how much.  He was brought to Chloride where Dr. Haskell attends him.”

One of the side benefits of describing the issues of The Black Range newspaper is that I am able to cross reference articles and ads in the newspaper to other sections of the Black Range Rag.  For instance, the listing of major mines in the Black Range (and the minerals that were mined in them - Major Mines 2, being an example - see the Site Map for a full listing) are increasing cross referenced with articles from The Black Range newspaper.  Stories of hopes, investments, and hard work are a lot less dry than a listing of minerals.

The Barnes family, featured in The Spell of the Black Range, in our “Blogs to Books” section lived in Chloride and are occasionally mentioned in articles in The Black Range newspaper.  The article to the right (above) notes Alice Barnes as the bridesmaid at a wedding, for instance.  Alice Barnes was the mother of the author of “The Spell of the Black Range.”

A complete copy of this issue may be read at, The Black Range Newspaper, issue of April 20, 1883, the file is 1.7 MB in size.

BELOW: Stock Certificate for The Sierra Grande Mining Company, Mines Located at Lake Valley, New Mexico, purchased on January 16, 1883.


Stock Certificate for The Sierra Grande Mining Company,
Mines Located at Lake Valley, New Mexico, purchased on January 16, 1883.




FEATURED TODAY: Big rocks falling from the sky... 

Sometimes an ad is just an ad, sometimes it provides a glimpse of history.  Francisco Antonio Manzanares is pictured to the right.  He was born in 1843 in Aliquiú, Mexico (in what is now New Mexico).  Shortly after he was born the Mexican-American War began and by the time he was seven his citizenship had changed from Mexican to American and the territory of New Mexico had been formed.

He attended St. Louis University in 1863-64 and shortly afterward he started work for Chick, Browne, & Co. in Kansas City.  He traveled to New York where he continued his college education and worked in a bank.  He then returned to Chick, Browne, & Co. and became a partner in the firm.  He focused on opening stores along the train routes.  In 1879 he became a full partner in the firm and it was renamed to Browne, Manzanares & Co. and the company headquarters was  moved from Kansas City to Las Vegas, New Mexico.  He served as a territorial delegate for New Mexico in the US House for one year (March 1884 to March 1885).

Manzanares is the reason that Socorro had a Browne, Manzanares, & Co. store.  As mentioned in reports on earlier issues, the company’s ads were the only ones in The Black Range newspaper to feature an image (from initial publication to this date).


The Browne, Manzanares & Co. stores were a chain, in every since of the word, see their ad from the Las Vegas Daily Gazette (New Mexico) on November 30, 1882 at the bottom of this entry.  Note that the image is the same - branding!!

On the Front Page of this issue:

“The cyclone season has commenced.  The first one reported demolished a small station on the Little Rock railroad in Arkansas, and the second visits Zubuta Falls, Minnesota.  The town is almost totally destroyed.”  (Editor: and extended article on the tornado season is on page 2, see the full .pdf below.)

“Gen. Crook, it is reported, does not believe that the Indians can be fought with regular troops , and he will therefore employ Indian scouts to cross the border in pursuit of the hostiles.” (More on this in an article from page 2, below right.)

“The Kingston bank of Raynold Bros. has been purchased by Norman C. Raff of Albuquerque, Vincent Wallace of Kingston and R. W. Zollers of El Paso.  The bank will be removed to Deming and Mr. Wallace placed in charge.”

iron king mine

“A meteor fell in Brown county, Texas on the 14th of April, which is the largest on record.  It covers an acre of ground, stands seventy feet above the ground and is supposed to extend two hundred feet below the surface.  The dwelling of a Mexican herder named Martinez Garcia was destroyed and the man, his wife and family of five children were buried beneath the monster.  Several head of cattle were also crushed into the earth.” (Editor: This report could only have come from Texas where things are always smaller than imagined.)

More than two columns are dedicated to “The Mineral Resources of the Apache Mining District”.  The Apache Mining District is located at Chloride.  The entire article, with annotations can be found below.

On the Second Page of this issue:

“Milwaukee has a female lawyer Kate Kane by name.  Judge Malory of the criminal court insulted her, so she claims, whereupon she threw a glass of water in his face.  Good for Kate.  The judge fined her $50 for the act.  He ought to be Kaned.”

“Last week Friday was a bad windy day, not only in the range, but at other points.  The New Mexican at Santa Fe says there it was the most severe sand storm seen for five years, and the Rio Grande Republican remarks that if such storms were frequent Las Cruces would be inhabitable.”


“There are fewer number of men employed in prospecting for and working mines in the Black Range, today, than at any other period since the whites replaced the Indians in the occupancy of this delightful land.”

“The Santa Fe New Mexican’s mining editor, Mr. A. F. Weunsch, is giving the Black Range a good writing up in a series of letters to his journal.  Mr. Weunsch thinks with all other visitors here that the Black Range hasunexceptionally fine surface indications but that the country is held back by the apathy, in development or fear of the owners.  There can be no disputing this.  Too many property owners, and these generally have the most promising prospects, are sitting idle awaiting for some body to come along and pay them the price of a mine for a very uncertain prospect.  The contact of their trousers will be worn pretty thin before the hopes of most of these persons will be realized.  Gentlemen, either work your claims or lower your prices, and give yourselves and the country a chance to do and to be something.” (Editor: Elsewhere on page 2 there is an extended discussion about why the mines in New Mexico are not doing so well.  See the full .pdf below.)

On the Third Page of this issue:

Fairview: “Reber has an abundance of water in his well at his ranch just east of Robinson.  Thirty feet depth only was required.”

right of way

Fairview: “Z. C. Stivers makes regular trips to and from Hermosa, three times per week, carrying freight and express.  Hermosa furnishes considerable business toFairview and Chloride.”

Fairview: “The Fairview butcher shop has been closed for a season owing to the proprietor being unable to get the stock necessary for continuing the business.  Mr. Cloudman has now got track of some beeves and the institution will open its doors again before long.”

Fairview: “On Tuesday evening J. B. Alexander living on Bear Creek above Robinson was chopping wood under the clothesline.  The line in a sportive mood took hold of the descending ax and diverting it from its intended course brought it down upon the old man’s head inflicting a wound two and a half inches long.”

Chloride: “There have been enough pistol plays this week to furnish the Range with some good local items, but unfortunately they all ended in bluff.”

Chloride: “The Buffum is taking out finer ore now than ever before and the mineral crevice is nearly as wide as the shaft.  The value of this property is being enhanced by every foot sunk.”

Chloride: “E. W. Layton carries his finger done up in a rag.  He pointed out to Billy Dunn a particularly handsome specimen of ore in the side of the shaft of the Buffum mine, and Billy in his endeavor to loosen the mineral with a pick severed the end of Layton’s right fore finger.”

Grafton: “Staley & Cajacobs are preparing to plant several thousand pounds of potatoes on the Scales ranch at the mouth of Bear Canyon.”

Hagan Peak Tunnel

Grafton: “Mr. Franks has received one thousand pounds of seed potatoes from Kansas City, which are costing him over seven cents per pound delivered.  He will plant them on his ranch on Bear Creek.”

Grafton: “ Judge Adams has the new shaft on the Alaska nearly eight feet deep and has as yet encountered no dampness.  Thirteen men are employed in mining the work along at the most --- possible.”

Grafton: “Mr. Dow heard in Chicago from what he considers good authority that Col. Gillette will soon return to Grafton and resume work upon the Ivanhoe.  It may be true.  At any rate it seems hardly possible that the Ivanhoe will be allowed to be idle much longer.”

Grafton: “Assessment work for the year has been finished upon the Yankee Boy, the property of Smith and Berry.  This claim has two openings on the vein one sixty and the other twenty-five feet deep.  It shows a three foot crevice of sixty ounce mineral and work done has piled up some very handsome ore dumps.”

This issue may be read in its entirety at The Black Range Newspaper, issue of April 27, 1883, the file is 2.3 MB in size.


Brown & Manzanares ad


The entry above (which covered the Black Range newspaper edition of April 27, 1883) notes that a substantial portion of the front page was dedicated to the Apache Mining District (now generally referred to as the Chloride Mining District).  Here we provide the article in its entirety, with annotation.  It is important to note that the Black Range newspaper contains both fact and hype, especially when covering mining topics.  Great finds and expectations are sometimes noted; the reports may have been made in full faith with the best information available at that time, with hope, or with fraudulent intent (or just about any combination of the three that you can imagine).  There is no way of knowing and in many cases the foundation of the report is not terribly important.


In 1879, Henry Pye was on a freight run between Hillsboro and the army fort at Ojo Caliente when he discovered silver ore (“chloride of silver”).  After his freight contract had expired he returned to the area with some other prospectors, locating the Pye Lode mine.  He was killed by Apaches shortly thereafter, but the deed had been done and prospectors flooded the area and the town of Chloride was founded after several prospecting expeditions had entered the area and been driven off by the Apaches.


continued below

Harley (see Bulletin 10) states that “The Pye lode is supposed to be the original location of Harry Pye, the discoverer of the district.  The load extends southward from Hagan’s Peak, which is about a mile south of the Treasury mine.  Radiating from the north, east and south sides of this peak are a number of other veins quite similar to the Pye lode.  Near the peak the lode contains some gold and silver associated with pyrite, and to the south for several miles occasional pockets of ore have been found, but on the whole the vein has not proved as productive as some of the others in the district.  One reason for this is that the vein is so isolated that only extremely high grade ore paid to mine, so that nowhere has much more than surface prospecting been done on it.” (p. 86)

Some sources claim that a tent city “filled the entire canyon” by 1880, and imply that this was permanent.  However, these sources go on to assert that in January 1881 eighteen prospectors returned (what happened to the tent city of 1880), two were killed and the other 16 left.  Others returned in March and soon platted the town of Chloride, initially known as Pyetown, then Bromide, and eventually Chloride. 

“...could be worked to advantage.”  The Black Range newspaper was continually arguing that the Black Range would flourish if it had more processing infrastructure and  that the investment in such infrastructure would be very lucrative for the investors. 

The general geology of this area is described in several sources, one “Report of the Director of the Mint upon the Production of the Precious Metals in the United States during the Calendar Year 1883” is very long (see pages at and near 606 for descriptions of this area) and is available on the web at the link above.  Two others; “The Geology and Ore Deposits of Sierra County, New Mexico” (George Harley, 1934) is referenced as Bulletin10 (link above) and the US Geological Survey Bulletin 1876, “Mineral Belts in Western Sierra County, New Mexico, Suggested by Mining Districts, Geology, and Geochemical Anomalies” (1989) (referred to below as Mineral Belts of Western Sierra County) are hosted on this site.


“Report of the Director of the Mint upon the Production of the Precious Metals in the United States during the Calendar Year 1883” (referred to as “Report” below - link above) page 606 states “The Buffum is opened by a shaft to a depth of about 230 feet, the whole of which shows well throughout its entire depth, and gives assays of $225 in silver and a value of $50 in copper to the ton.  One shipment gave mill returns of 100 ounces of silver to the ton.  In addition to the above development, drifts on the vein to the north and south have latterly been run.”

The Copper Handbook” p. 1258 indicates that The Southwestern Mining Company was merged in about August 1908 with the Kansas-Cananea Copper Company.  The Southwestern Mining Company (Kansas) was incorporated on March 17, 1881, mining at Chloride with Capital Stock of $2M.  (There is also a “Southwestern Mining Company [Colorado]).

Not mentioned here, but mentioned in the “Report” (page 606) is the Colossal - ”Work on this mine has progressed during the year, but at present time so much water has been encountered in the shaft that but little more can be done until pumping machinery is supplied.  A tunnel is being driven in on the vein, from which fine ore is being obtained.  The shaft is being enlarged, with a view to preparing it for compartments; in the prosecution of this work some good ore is being removed.”

Not mentioned here, but in the Report (606) it is noted that “the King No. 2 is being worked under bond, and is producing some rich black sulphuret ore.  The streak is not wide...The King, Adirondack, Wall Street Nos. 1 and 2, Chieftain, Apache, Blackhawk, White Signal, Topeka, Omega, Excelsior, Midnight, and Hermosa are all locations more or less developed.”

US Geological Survey Bulletin 1876, “Mineral Belts in Western Sierra County, New Mexico, Suggested by Mining Districts, Geology, and Geochemical Anomalies” (referred to below as Mineral Belts of Western Sierra County - link above) was published in 1989 it describes the production of the Chloride District as:  “Mines in this area produced about $500,000 worth of mixed gold, silver, copper, and lead ore with some zinc between 1870 and 1930.  The district was largely dormant until about 1970 when the increase in price of precious metals spurred renewed activity and several mines were reopened.  The chief mines in the northern part of the area between Bear Creek and Mineral Creek are the Black Hawk, Bellboy,

Dreadnaught, Paymaster, Gold Hill, and Readjuster.  In the central part of the district close to Chloride Creek, are the Wall Street, Nana, and Hoosier mines to the east near Chloride.  The Silver Monument mine is located to the west near the head of Chloride Creek.  Farther south between Hagins Peak and Chloride Creek are the St. Cloud and U.S. Treasury mines, both of which were active in 1985; the Colossal mine, also active, is located on the north side of South Fork Creek, and in the southern part of the district between South Fork and Monument Creek, are the Midnight mine, Pye Lode, and Bald Eagle mines.  Two mines in the district, the St. Cloud and the U.S. Treasury, wince they were reopened in 1980, have together produced about $10 million worth of silver, gold, and copper ore by 1985.  They were still in operation, as well as the Colossal in 1987.  Some of the St. Cloud ores are  very rich in gold, copper, and silver.” (p. 7)

The El Paso, Eureka, Silver Glance, and Sailor Boy mines mentioned in the Black Range article to the left are not mentioned in “Mineral Belts of Western Sierra County.”

“The Readjuster and Bellboy mines in the northern part of the area are in latite and rhyolite tuff.  The Dreadnaught and Hoosier mines are in limestone of the Magdalena Group.  The U.S. Treasury, Bald Eagle, Wall Street, Nana, and Silver Monument mines are all in older andesite.” (“Mineral Belts of Western Sierra County” p. 8)

Harley (Bulletin 10 link above, pp 81-82) in discussing Bear, Dry, and Mineral Creeks says “This part of the district is tributary to the old but long since abandoned towns of Robinson and Roundyville.  Such mines as the Readjuster in Rock Cliff Canyon and the Dreadnaught on Mineral Creek are among the better known properties.  Some others are the Silver Glance, Mountain Chief, Climax, and El Paso.  Most of these have produced some silver-copper ore.  The Dreadnaught mine is said to have produced ore from one shoot, which was 30 feet long and extended from the surface to a depth of 50 feet, and which ran 100 to 240 ounces of silver and $5 in gold to the ton and 18 to 25 per cent copper.  The ground here is said to be very hard, and hand-mining methods were costly.”

Not mentioned here, but in the Report (606) it is noted that “Assays from the Apache show a value of nearly $670 to the ton in silver and gold.  The Ivanhoe is also located in this district, and is represented to be producing good ore, bearing both gold and silver.  The gold in fair quantity can be obtained by crushing the ore and the silver by smelting it.”

© Robert Barnes 2018-2023